Uploading Files via APIs in the Open Event Server

There are two file upload endpoints. One is endpoint for image upload and the other is for all other files being uploaded. The latter endpoint is to be used for uploading files such as slides, videos and other presentation materials for a session. So, in FOSSASIA’s Orga Server project, when we need to upload a file, we make an API request to this endpoint which is turn uploads the file to the server and returns back the url for the uploaded file. We then store this url for the uploaded file to the database with the corresponding row entry.

Sending Data

The endpoint /upload/file  accepts a POST request, containing a multipart/form-data payload. If there is a single file that is uploaded, then it is uploaded under the key “file” else an array of file is sent under the key “files”.

A typical single file upload cURL request would look like this:

curl -H “Authorization: JWT <key>” -F [email protected] -x POST http://localhost:5000/v1/upload/file

A typical multi-file upload cURL request would look something like this:

curl -H “Authorization: JWT <key>” -F [email protected] -F [email protected] -x POST http://localhost:5000/v1/upload/file

Thus, unlike other endpoints in open event orga server project, we don’t send a json encoded request. Instead it is a form data request.

Saving Files

We use different services such as S3, google cloud storage and so on for storing the files depending on the admin settings as decided by the admin of the project. One can even ask to save the files locally by passing a GET parameter force_local=true. So, in the backend we have 2 cases to tackle- Single File Upload and Multiple Files Upload.

Single File Upload

if 'file' in request.files:
        files = request.files['file']
        file_uploaded = uploaded_file(files=files)
        if force_local == 'true':
            files_url = upload_local(
                file_uploaded,
                UPLOAD_PATHS['temp']['event'].format(uuid=uuid.uuid4())
            )
        else:
            files_url = upload(
                file_uploaded,
                UPLOAD_PATHS['temp']['event'].format(uuid=uuid.uuid4())
            )


We get the file, that is to be uploaded using
request.files[‘file’] with the key as ‘file’ which was used in the payload. Then we use the uploaded_file() helper function to convert the file data received as payload into a proper file and store it in a temporary storage. After this, if force_local is set as true, we use the upload_local helper function to upload it to the local storage, i.e. the server where the application is hosted, else we use whatever service is set by the admin in the admin settings.

In uploaded_file() function of helpers module, we extract the filename and the extension of the file from the form-data payload. Then we check if the suitable directory already exists. If it doesn’t exist, we create a new directory and then save the file in the directory

extension = files.filename.split('.')[1]
        filename = get_file_name() + '.' + extension
        filedir = current_app.config.get('BASE_DIR') + '/static/uploads/'
        if not os.path.isdir(filedir):
            os.makedirs(filedir)
        file_path = filedir + filename
        files.save(file_path)


After that the upload function gets the settings key for either s3 or google storage and then uses the corresponding functions to upload this temporary file to the storage.

Multiple File Upload

 elif 'files[]' in request.files:
        files = request.files.getlist('files[]')
        files_uploaded = uploaded_file(files=files, multiple=True)
        files_url = []
        for file_uploaded in files_uploaded:
            if force_local == 'true':
                files_url.append(upload_local(
                    file_uploaded,
                    UPLOAD_PATHS['temp']['event'].format(uuid=uuid.uuid4())
                ))
            else:
                files_url.append(upload(
                    file_uploaded,
                    UPLOAD_PATHS['temp']['event'].format(uuid=uuid.uuid4())
                ))


In case of multiple files upload, we get a list of files instead of a single file. Hence we get the list of files sent as form data using
request.files.getlist(‘files[]’). Here ‘files’ is the key that is used and since it is an array of file content, hence it is written as files[]. We again use the uploaded_file() function to get back a list of temporary files from the content that has been uploaded as form-data. After that we loop over all the temporary files that are stored in the variable files_uploaded in the above code. Next, for every file in the list of temporary files, we use the upload() helper function to save these files in the storage system of the application.

In the uploaded_file() function of the helpers module, since this time there are multiple files and their content sent, so things work differently. We loop over all the files that are received and for each of these files we find their filename and extension. Then we create directories to save these files in and then save the content of the file with the corresponding filename and extension. After the file has been saved, we append it to a list and finally return the entire list so that we can get a list of all files.

if multiple:
        files_uploaded = []
        for file in files:
            extension = file.filename.split('.')[1]
            filename = get_file_name() + '.' + extension
            filedir = current_app.config.get('BASE_DIR') + '/static/uploads/'
            if not os.path.isdir(filedir):
                os.makedirs(filedir)
            file_path = filedir + filename
            file.save(file_path)
            files_uploaded.append(UploadedFile(file_path, filename))


The
upload() function then finally returns us the urls for the files after saving them.

API Response

The file upload endpoint either returns a single url or a list of urls depending on whether a single file was uploaded or multiple files were uploaded. The url for the file depends on the storage system that has been used. After the url or list of urls is received, we jsonify the entire response so that we can send a proper JSON response that can be parsed properly in the frontend and used for saving corresponding information to the database using the other API services.

A typical single file upload response looks like this:

{
     "url": "https://xyz.storage.com/asd/fgh/hjk/12332233.docx"
 }

Multiple file upload response looks like this:

{
     "url": [
         "https://xyz.storage.com/asd/fgh/hjk/12332233.docx",
         "https://xyz.storage.com/asd/fgh/hjk/66777777.ppt"
     ]
 }

You can find the related documentations and example payloads on how to use this endpoint to upload files here: http://open-event-api.herokuapp.com/#upload-file-upload.

 

Reference:

Set proper content type when uploading files on s3 with python-magic

In the open-event-orga-server project, we had been using Amazon s3 storage for a long time now. After some time we encountered an issue that no matter what the file type was, the Content-Type when retrieving this files from the storage solution was application/octet-stream.

An example response when retrieving an image from s3 was as follows:


Accept-Ranges →bytes
Content-Disposition →attachment; filename=HansBakker_111.jpg
Content-Length →56060
Content-Type →application/octet-stream
Date →Fri, 09 Sep 2016 10:51:06 GMT
ETag →"964b1d839a9261fb0b159e960ceb4cf9"
Last-Modified →Tue, 06 Sep 2016 05:06:23 GMT
Server →AmazonS3
x-amz-id-2 →1GnO0Ta1e+qUE96Qgjm5ZyfyuhMetjc7vfX8UWEsE4fkZRBAuGx9gQwozidTroDVO/SU3BusCZs=
x-amz-request-id →ACF274542E950116

 

As seen above instead of providing image/jpeg as the Content-Type, it provides the Content-Type as application/octet-stream.While uploading the files, we were not providing the content type explicitly, which seemed to be the root of the problem.

It was decided that we would be providing the content type explicitly, so it was time to choose an efficient library to determine the file type based on the content of the file and not the file extension. After researching through the available libraries python-magic seemed to be the obvious choice. python-magic is a python interface to the libmagic file type identification library. libmagic identifies file types by checking their headers according to a predefined list of file types.

Here is an example straight from python-magic‘s readme on its usage:


>>> import magic
>>> magic.from_file("testdata/test.pdf")
'PDF document, version 1.2'
>>> magic.from_buffer(open("testdata/test.pdf").read(1024))
'PDF document, version 1.2'
>>> magic.from_file("testdata/test.pdf", mime=True)
'application/pdf'

 

Given below is a code snippet for the s3 upload function in the project:


file_data = file.read()
    file_mime = magic.from_buffer(file_data, mime=True)
    size = len(file_data)
    # k is defined as  k = Key(bucket) in previous code
    sent = k.set_contents_from_string(
        file_data,
        headers={
            'Content-Disposition': 'attachment; filename=%s' % filename,
            'Content-Type': '%s' % file_mime
        }
    ) 

 

One thing to note that as python-magic uses libmagic-dev as a dependency and many of the distros do not come with libmagic-dev pre-installed, make sure you install libmagic-dev explicitly. (Installation instructions may vary per distro)


sudo apt-get install libmagic-dev

Voila !! Now when retrieving each and every file you’ll get the proper content type.

 

Using S3 for Cloud storage

In this post, I will talk about how we can use the Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) for cloud storage. As you may know, S3 is a no-fuss, super easy cloud storage service based on the IaaS model. There is no limit on the size of file or the amount of files you can keep on S3, you are only charged for the amount of bandwidth you use. This makes S3 very popular among enterprises of all sizes and individuals.

Now let’s see how to use S3 in Python. Luckily we have a very nice library called Boto for it. Boto is a library developed by the AWS team to provide a Python SDK for the amazon web services. Using it is very simple and straight-forward. Here is a basic example of uploading a file on S3 using Boto –

import boto
from boto.s3.key import Key
# connect to the bucket
conn = boto.connect_s3(AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID, AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY)
bucket = conn.get_bucket(BUCKET_NAME)
# set the key
key = 'key/for/file'
file = '/full/path/to/file'
# create a key to keep track of our file in the storage
k = Key(bucket)
k.key = key
k.set_contents_from_filename(file)

The above example uploads a file to s3 bucket BUCKET_NAME.

Buckets are containers which store data. The key here is the unique key for an item in the bucket. Every item in the bucket is identified by a unique key assigned to it. The file can be downloaded from the urlBUCKET_NAME.s3.amazonaws.com/{key}. It is therefore essential to choose the key name smartly so that you don’t end up overwriting an existing item on the server.

In the Open Event project, I thought of a scheme that will allows us to avoid conflicts. It relies on using IDs of items for distinguishing them and goes as follows –

  • When uploading user avatar, key should be ‘users/{userId}/avatar’
  • When uploading event logo, key should be ‘events/{eventId}/logo’
  • When uploading audio of session, key should be ‘events/{eventId}/sessions/{sessionId}/audio’

Note that to store user ‘avatar’, I am setting the key as /avatar and not /avatar.extension. This is because if user uploads pictures in different formats, we will end up storing different copies of avatars for the same user. This is nice but it’s limitation is that downloading file from the url will give the file without an extension. So to solve this issue, we can use the Content-Disposition header.

k.set_contents_from_filename(
	file,
	headers={
		'Content-Disposition': 'attachment; filename=filename.extension'
	}
)

So now when someone tries to download the file from that link, they will get the file with an extension instead of a no-extension “Choose what you want to do” file.

This covers up the basics of using S3 for your Python project. You may explore Boto’s S3 documentation to find other interesting functions like deleting a folder, copy one folder to another and so.

Also don’t forget to have a look at the awesome documentation we wrote for the Open Event project. It provides a more pictorial and detailed guide on how to setup S3 for your project.

 

{{ Repost from my personal blog http://aviaryan.in/blog/gsoc/s3-for-storage.html }}